Gulu town is the provincial capital of the Acholi region and, with a population of roughly 150,000, it is the largest municipality in northern Uganda. Many people make a living from an informal economy that was devastated by the Covid-19 lockdown and which is now slowly recovering.
It is the marketing centre of the main agricultural region of northern Uganda. Local crops include cotton, tea, coffee, corn (maize), and tobacco. Processing industries in Gulu include those that handle oilseed and grain milling.
Gulu has a large number of refugee camps where people from Sudan, Rwanda, and Congo are settled permanently. The town is linked by road and railway with Lira, Soroti, and Pakwach and has an airport.